The talk, “What’s Your Angle? Strategies for Researching & Reporting on Complex Topics,” led by the Assistant Director of the Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Susan E. McGregor, also featured the Center’s Research Director, Claire Wardle, the City University of New York’s Social Journalism Director, Carrie Brown, and The Marshall Project’s Simone Weichselbaum.
Weichselbaum explained the importance of doing original investigative work on subjects such as criminal justice, which receive plenty of news coverage that’s all too often superficial. “It’s fascinating for me to actually work on a topic area that there’s not a lot of writing and not a lot of data on,” Wechselbaum said.
But going beyond the glancing coverage can be an arduous task, said Weichselbaum, who reported for over six years at organizations including The New York Daily News before focusing on police reforms for The Marshall Project –a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization covering America’s criminal justice system.
Like Weichselbaum-who said that a lack of public information shouldn’t deter journalists-Brown and Wardle acknowledged that even the most obscure subjects typically have at least one expert in the field. Finding someone who has thoroughly studied a subject is essential, Brown said, noting of journalists: “All too often we come into something with our [own] preconception.”
Despite their different backgrounds and experiences in the journalism field, the three panelists all agreed on the importance of good research and reporting before formulating a question on a complex topic. Brown, whose research focuses on understanding how newsrooms have changed culturally and strategically as a result of digital innovation, said she believes journalism is more of a service than a product. To that end, Brown said, finding people directly affected by a topic and listening to what they have to say is a crucial element of reporting. Rather than approach sources with specific questions, journalists should first seek to establish a rapport with open-ended questions such as: “What bothers you?” This sort of approach, Brown said, builds lasting relationships with sources so “you can keeping coming back.”
Known amongst students of the Columbia Journalism School for her original approaches to teaching and witty interactions, Wardle-who has just recently returned to academia from the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees-compared journalism to an hourglass. The top section of the glass, she said, represents the broadest area of research on a subject. As the glass narrows, the research needs to explain why it matters or how it changes the status quo before expanding again into the bottom broad section addressing the “so-what?” questions that audiences of different knowledge levels will ultimately ask.
Towards the conclusion of the panel, the experts recognized the significance of dedicating enough time and resources to the primary stages of the journalistic and research processes. As they know from their own and their peers’ experiences, the more in-depth the research, the better prepared a journalist will be to find both new and relevant angles to even the most complex and controversial of topics.]]>
Clemson University, in collaboration with Columbia University and the University of Washington, has an opening for a postdoctoral fellow starting January 1st, 2016.
The successful candidate will join a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Clemson, Columbia and the University of Washington investigating human-centered aspects of computer security and privacy in journalism. The ideal applicant will possess a PhD in Human-Centered Computing, Human-Computer Interaction, Engineering Psychology, Human Factors, Computer Science, Communication, Journalism or a related field with a background in user-centered research methods (e.g., interviews, usability studies) and/or building tools or systems. Applicants should have experience conducting independent research, analyzing statistical data, a record of communicating research results via publications and presentations, and be enthusiastic about participating on a collaborative, distributed and multidisciplinary research team.
The ideal candidate will have a strength in either technical systems building or human factors/usability with an interest in the complementary discipline.
The position is full time, in residence at Clemson University in Clemson, SC, with generous funding for project travel and the potential to spend time working at partner institutions (UW and Columbia). The position is for one year and will be under the mentorship of Professors Kelly Caine, Franziska Roesner and Susan McGregor with support from the National Science Foundation.
Located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains surrounded by a lake and its own forest, Clemson University — South Carolina’s land-grant and highest-ranked institution — is committed to academic excellence, public service, economic development and innovative research. Clemson boasts its own 17,500-acre experimental forest, is home to the 295-acre South Carolina Botanical Garden, and sits on the shores of Lake Hartwell, one of the Southeast’s most popular recreation sites. Clemson is connected to Greenville, SC, a thriving, walkable mid-size city that boasts a rail-to-trail bike path, al fresco dining, and its own mid-city waterfall, by public transportation. At Clemson it’s possible to do groundbreaking research in the morning and enjoy hiking, biking or sailing in the evening.
Interested applicants should send their CV and a short email cover letter highlighting relevant experience to firstname.lastname@example.org with “Application for Post-doc” in the email subject line. Review of applications will begin immediately and will continue until the position is filled. For full consideration, please apply by November 6th.
Applications from women and minorities are strongly encouraged.
Jake Shapiro and Kerri Hoffman are the CEO and COO, respectively, of the Public Radio Exchange (PRX), a not-for-profit online marketplace for public radio programming. PRX is also the home to Radiotopia, the podcast network anchored by 99% Invisible. In this interview, we talk about the potential “game changer” in podcasting, the ways audiences can support content in the digital age, and fulfilling the promise of public radio.
According to Kerri Hoffman, radio is in uncertain — but exciting — times: “You realize that something is shifting, but it’s hard to quantify. The data isn’t yet clear, but you can sense that the pace is accelerating, We’re in this transitional phase right now where old rules don’t really apply, but the new rules haven’t yet been created.”
To keep up with all this transformation, PRX, both a content and a tech company, has cultivated a nimble, start-up mentality. When PRX originated in 2003, it hoped to solve a major problem for local stations: finding great, underutilized content from talented producers. In the process PRX solved a major problem for producers too — getting their hard-earned stuff on the air, the only way it would ever be heard. Today of course, Hoffman explains, “Stations are no longer that sole gatekeeper.”
As radio digitalized and democratized, so too did PRX. Even before iTunes existed, PRX became involved in podcasting. It created a tool so public radio stations could play their streams online. It created a 24/7 online stream of public radio programming (called PRX Remix). And, in 2009, it partnered with the storytelling organization The Moth to launch its podcast (The Moth consistently sits in the tops of the iTunes podcast charts). Today PRX is a digital platform that producers can use to directly find an audience and earn revenue.
As PRX CEO, Jake Shapiro puts it: “We’ve taken opportunities to be a laboratory for the industry.”
The most high-profile of its most recent experiments has been the creation of Radiotopia, a podcasting network (perhaps more accurately described as a collective) anchored by Roman Mars’ 99% Invisible. All Radiotopia shows remain owned by their producers; however, they have access to PRX’s infrastructure, from marketing and promotion, to channels of distribution, to sponsorship and fundraising, to tech support. According to Shapiro, so far the prototype has worked — Radiotopia has come to signify an aesthetic sensibility, and the shows have grown their audience and revenue via advertisers who want to be associated with the brand.
Another interesting experiment is the podcast “How to Be Amazing with Ian Black,” co-produced by Audible. In exchange for offsetting production costs, which PRX typically can’t cover, Audible gets to air the show exclusively to Audible subscribers for a set period of time. The show is later distributed freely by PRX. The deal allows the creators to save on production and access Audible’s audience while still earning significant ad revenue through widespread distribution.
The unusual arrangement is just one of the ways PRX has gotten creative with its business model. Although sponsorship is the company’s fastest growing revenue source, PRX aims to adhere to the “three legged stool” model of public radio, hoping to maintaining a balance between direct support from listeners, corporate sponsorships, and philanthropic grants.
However, unlike public radio, PRX has no membership model, which means that the concept of “direct support” is a far more malleable one. Shapiro says they’re constantly looking for new ways to tap into their loyal listener base. For example, PRX has become particularly interested in replicating their successful crowdfunding campaigns on Kickstarter. Shapiro admits he also looks to indie record labels for inspiration for how podcasters can engage with audiences: “We’re already seeing the growth of live events and other types of commerce or merchandise opportunities for true fans of these shows. […] In the future we hope to tie that passionate fan support into a more sustained way of long-term contributing to produce new shows.”
Part and parcel of that strategy will be gaining a better understanding of who the PRX audience is. According to Shapiro, interesting listener data is beginning to come in from Spotify; however, the streaming audio company has yet to roll out podcasting to its entire subscriber base. Shapiro emphasizes that the improved analytics will not just be of interest to advertisers, but also content creators:
“I’m most interested in creating a feedback loop for producers so they know who their audience is, how they should craft their stories, what time of the day or the week they can release them. There’s a lot of open questions about that and very little feedback coming back to the content creators.”
The data would also be useful for PRX, as the company is in the process of developing distribution and consumer-listening products that will hopefully improve searchability and discoverability — and create additional sources of revenue. Shapiro notes: “We’re really thinking about how we strategize around the mobile app space, because that’s where a lot of the listening is going on.”
Hoffmann notes that the real game changer, in terms of podcasting technology, would be a significant conversion of android users into podcast listeners. And since quality content creation is a huge part of their company, both Hoffmann and Shapiro welcome the potential burst in audience that would accompany such a tech play. In Shapiro’s words, “the content is really where the value is…. a foundation is as strong as the content participants in it; the technology is the enabler that pushes the whole thing forward.”
What most excites Shapiro about the future of the industry is this potential growth — both in terms of audience and talent. He’s fascinated to see what will compel non-listeners to convert into podcast consumers and where the next set of content creators will come from. Hoffmann is similarly optimistic:
“In the early days of PRX our tag line was ‘making public radio more public.’ I’ve thought about that a lot over the years, and it actually feels like we’re at this moment where we can actually do that, because things are so disaggregated, like it really is part of the public. We really hear from new voices, new communities. The costs have gone down for production, the distribution models are pretty inexpensive. I think that these are really exciting times.”]]>
“The hope is that feeling of presence – which has been rigorously tested – will lead to a feeling of connection or empathy with the people whose stories are being told,” said Fergus Pitt, a senior fellow at the Tow Center.
Experts claim that VR is a natural evolution of video, which traces its roots back to the latter portion of the 19th century. But there are two main differences between the two: How content is captured and how it is displayed. For VR, images need to be recorded from every angle, as opposed to one fixed point for motion pictures.
There are a few different ways of doing this, which are demonstrated by projects already completed.
The first is by using 360 video, which was in the news again last week because of its introduction on Facebook. (In the future, the social network hopes you’ll be able to experience your friends’ vacations as if you were actually there.) This is done by using multiple cameras to capture environments around them, resulting in multiple clips of video that need to be stitched together to create a panoramic image.
Gabo Arora, a filmmaker and media adviser at the United Nations, is using this technique to produce immersive documentaries on topics such as Syrian refugee camps to impact change within diplomatic communities. FRONTLINE in collaboration with the Tow Center recently debuted its first VR documentary, “Ebola Outbreak: A Virtual Journey,” with the technology, and Bryn Mooser and David Darg of RYOT News incorporated 360 video into its film on Nepal.
An alternative approach to creating VR is using cameras equipped with 3-D scanning capabilities. Paul Cheung and Nathan Griffiths at The Associated Press used this method to launch its first VR story, “The suite life,” which enables viewers to “walk” through and experience exclusive locations such as a luxury hotel room, a cruise ship and an airplane. Each space was extensively photographed using a 3-D camera from Matterport and reconstructed for use in VR.
Computer animation and game design can also be used to recreate virtual environments. A prime example is the work developed by the Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute and fellow Dan Archer through a digital representation of the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri.
No matter the technique used, though, virtual reality has the ability to create automatic physical and emotional responses in people who experience it. Our bodies respond to the virtual stimulus in a similar way of actually being in a new physical space – our blood flow and heartrate increase. Who doesn’t want to be part of the action?
Although it’s still in its infancy, VR has the potential to become an impactful storytelling tool the same way motion pictures became one all those years ago. VR breaks physical and economic barriers and enables users to travel to different environments and explore new realities.
Will virtual reality continue to increase its impact on the news industry as the costs to view it decline? Only time will tell.
In mid-November 2015, Taylor Owen and Fergus Pitt will be publishing a research report exploring their experiences making “Ebola Outbreak: A Virtual Journey” with PBS Frontline and Secret Location.]]>
The ongoing digital disruption impacting the economics of the news business, is inspiring journalists to find new ways to rethink productivity and innovation, the two primary factors of long-term growth. With limited resources and shrinking budgets, it is critical that news organizations maximize the time reporters have to practice journalism and break news. Not only that, but reporters need to work smarter, not harder.
Automation technology can be one of the new tools to help journalists achieve that mindset. A recent example is that of The Associated Press using smart algorithms to automatically create earnings stories for companies throughout the United States each quarter.
Lou Ferrara, AP’s managing editor overseeing business news, explains, “This is about using technology to free journalists to do more journalism and less data processing, not about eliminating jobs.”
Andreas Graefe, a fellow at the Tow Center, says, “Automated and human journalism may complement each other, and the ability to automate routine tasks may offer opportunities to improve journalistic quality.”
Today, we are going through an “Information Revolution.” Developments in fields such as machine learning and artificial intelligence enable the automation of many functions — even journalism — that previously were impossible for machines to perform. Modern journalists will have to be more than excellent storytellers; they will also have to become fluent in technology, programming and data analysis.
Graefe added, “Algorithms will analyze data, find interesting stories and provide a first draft, which journalists would then enrich with more in-depth analyses, interviews with key people and behind-the-scene reporting.”
The new scenario opens up possibilities for sweeping change in how newsrooms deploy their resources and how reporters do their work. As new technologies change knowledge work, it will be important for news media professionals to understand what role smart machines will play in the future of journalism.
Tow projects such as “The Art and Science of Data-Driven Journalism” and “Algorithmic Accountability” aim precisely at advancing the understanding the impact of technology in journalism.
Andreas Graefe is currently writing a Guide to Automated Journalism. It will be published on November 12, 2015.]]>
Both Elder and Morrissey are highly credited for building the international newsrooms of their respective organizations. This demands an in-depth approach from journalists towards news events and the presence of journalists from all over the world. The need to both get stories first and find exclusive stories makes the field highly competitive.
The work that is most valued in such a field is rooted in meticulous reporting on facts that are generally hard to find, and writing that can present these facts and important insights in a concise and lucid manner. The challenge is to dive into a new minefield of information and ferret out credible sources, reliable information and data, and finding a new angle for a story. Reiterating an already known local story for an international audience is no longer sufficient.
Because of this, employers are now scouting for a different kind of skill set. Knowing a second or third language and having in-depth knowledge of a particular beat takes center stage. This also changes recruitment preferences; international newsrooms today seek a fine balance between experienced in-house reporters and reporters hired from the local area. This combination generates stories for an international audience that include a deep, local understanding of an issue. Great international reporters can both live and breath a country while also offering the broader context provided by an observer’s perspective. While organizations have different policies towards freelance work and pitches, they discourage jumping into areas of war and conflict to get a story that will potentially sell. The best pitches are those that can explain a story in a sentence or two; the rest of the data is should provide the background to support the story.
In such a dynamic scenario, aspiring international reporters find themselves in a tough loop – experience needs a job and job needs experience. To push out of this envelope, students can work on side projects but should do so responsibly. Side projects will be successful and rewarding only if they are invested with adequate hard work – and that can be hard to balance with the immense workload at the J-School.
What helps in such a case is to select projects topics that demonstrate curiosity and passion. Maximize your resources to get your work out there instead of aiming for ambitious successes. For example, it is useful to have an interesting and active social media presence or even a personal blog. Always have a project that captures your curiosity.
Columbia Journalism School’s student body has a large international community as well as many students with diverse work experiences. By honing and sharing our skills, we bring a the new perspectives needed to succeed in the field of international reporting.]]>
Caitlin Thompson is the Director of Content for Acast, a Swedish company that offers end-to-end podcasting services — providing everything from a hosting platform and content managing system, to an embeddable player that integrates rich media and links, to dynamic ad-insertion technology, to a sharing and discovery app for consumers. In this interview, Thompson talks about the importance of embeddable players for media outlets, the need to reach new, diverse podcasting audiences, and the potential of branded content.
When I sat down with Caitlin Thompson, the podcasting veteran now lending her editorial expertise to Acast, I asked her one of the questions I myself have been mulling over a lot lately (particularly since my conversation with Sarah van Mosel of WNYC): “Some people compare podcasts to movies and say — well, if movies don’t have detailed metrics, podcasts don’t need to be so quantified either.”
Thompson considered the position and responded quickly. “If Netflix hadn’t proven that you can break down taste into algorithms, those people would be right.”
Just as Netflix has transformed the consumption of movies, so too does Acast hope to transform the ways we consume, share, and discover podcasts. The company, which is already established in Sweden and the UK, is entering the US market, hoping that its technology is perfectly positioned to fill two gaping holes in podcasting today: metrics and dynamic ads.
On the metrics side, Acast’s strength is its deep understanding of streaming technology — no surprise, considering most of the people who built the platform (a bevvy of “extremely attractive Swedes” apparently) came from Spotify. Acast’s technology can not only give detailed information about listener location, time of listen, length of listen etc., but it can also track listening across devices and thus integrate all metrics to provide a more accurate picture of total listening.
On the ad side, Acast dynamically injects advertising at the point of play, ensuring that a podcast’s back catalogue is tapped for its advertising potential (see this blog post to understand why that’s a game-changer for podcast advertising). In Thompson’s words: “We both solve the advertiser issue in terms of the mechanical stuff and we solve the metrics issue. Those are two things that everyone else is trying to grapple with separately, in a very complicated way, and we do them together, simply.”
Another boon for Acast — one of particular interest to news outlets — is its player, which can be embedded into a news outlets’ website or social media page. This means you don’t have “to send people off to a different ecosystem” to listen or subscribe to your content. What’s more, Acast’s player is unique in that it’s “rich” with links, images, videos, etc.
As Thompson explained in an email: “For media companies or brands looking to keep an audience on site, circulating through their other content or linking to a specific product, this is a huge differentiator and we think it’s the future of the way people will consume audio. Imagine listening to Serial and seeing a map of the parking lot phone booth right there in front of you.”
Acast isn’t the only company making a play towards end-to-end tech. Panoply recently acquired audiometric, an Australian platform that is also a Content Managing System that provides dynamic ad-insertion technology. Acast may have reason to worry about the burgeoning competition — particularly since they hope to raise money almost exclusively from advertising revenue (revenue it then shares with the podcast creators), and Panoply has the benefit of supplementing its ad revenue with fees from its partnering publishers. However, as Thompson puts it, right now she has a more pressing concern: “our mandate, as is everybody’s mandate in the whole podcasting world, is just to grow the audience.”
Part of that growth, Thompson hopes, will come from the inclusion of people who traditionally haven’t been part of the public radio audience. “I’m somebody who wants to democratize this world, and I want to really really see a profusion of different types of voices and formats.” Thompson points to the Loud Speakers Network, whose shows are largely hosted by and directed towards audiences of color, as “one of the most wonderful things that could possibly happen to podcasting. […] these are people who have never listened to podcasts before in a lot of cases, based on surveys.”
“Podcasting can and should be way bigger than a few shows made in the quiet confines of an ivory tower type place.”
The increased diversity of audiences will also allow podcasts to approach a wider range of advertisers. Thompson longs for the day that podcasts have such detailed data about their listeners that they can approach advertisers based on that demographic information.
“Spotify has incredibly detailed data about me. They know when I listen, how long I listen, they’ve probably figured out I have a kid, because between the hours of 6:30 and 7:15 I’m playing nursery rhymes […] I would kill for their data basically, I would make ten shows specifically aimed at their different user profiles.”
Whether these shows are merely sponsored by advertisers or are in fact branded content — Acast for example hosts a podcast run by fashion retailer Asos (My Big Idea) — remains to be seen. However, Thompson isn’t afraid of embracing future editorial/advertorial partnerships. The only thing preventing widespread advertiser buy-in, according to Thompson, is advertiser education; advertisers need to know what the numbers mean and why podcasting ads are so much more valuable than display ads. As Thompson points out, in a media world overrun by ads people barely pay attention to, podcast listeners not only typically remember (even enjoy) podcast ads, they are loyal — an increasingly rare characteristic for digital consumers.
As Thompson explains: “[With] podcasts, you know there’s a regularity in listens. If you’re The Huffington Post or Buzzfeed or Vox or Fusion or whatever, you can do a great job with reaching an audience with one particular piece of content, but it’s really hard to guarantee that they’re going to come back — which is why you have monthly visitors vs. unique visitors. You want to have a healthy proportion of that: you want to be attracting new people, but you also want to be retaining others so your advertisers see that they know what they’re reaching.”]]>
Journalism is increasingly dependent on + influenced by the companies that dominate the social web. Social networks + search companies like Facebook, Twitter & Google are no longer “just platforms” or conduits and are now actively shaping how journalism is practiced + funded.
The new paradigm that puts together the culture, technologies + business models of Silicon Valley with the practice of independent journalism is creating opportunities + challenges for both fields.
The Tow Center is committed to researching + explaining this critical new landscape with the aim of identifying and teaching best practices to a new generation of journalists + fostering wider understanding of how the public is influenced in the 21st Century.
Speaker information will be added in the coming weeks.
Topics will include:
The relationship between news organizations and social networks.
The rights and responsibilities of platforms and publishers.
Improving quality and depth in the technology journalism beat.
How newsrooms have adapted to storytelling through platforms to reach new audiences.
The benefits and drawbacks of news organizations tackling their own platforms and distribution mechanisms.
Lessons for news organizations as they diversify their revenue streams.
This conference is supported by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation.]]>
Our love of sports in this country can be traced back 100 years to the end of World War I, when a period of stability and prosperity led to an increase in disposable income and time. As interest in sports grew, newspapers took notice and started developing related content for the masses. Advertising revenue followed soon thereafter, and sports journalism became an important driver of innovation in the news business.
Sports transcended print, though. Boxing commentary was an early experiment in radio, while television caused interest in games to increase exponentially. The National Football League capitalized on its made-for-television format both in becoming America’s leading spectator sport and in raising revenues through its “television timeouts” starting in 1958.
Almost 60 years later, the NFL has announced something that once again could continue to further push innovation in journalism. Each player’s shoulder pads will be equipped with a set of radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors, which emit unique signals that pinpoint field position, speed, distance traveled and acceleration in real time. The data will be available both to broadcasters for commentary as well as to coaches and players via cloud technology.
This innovation not only places sports broadcasting once again on the edge of technology adoption but also signals potential gains for other investigative fields that embrace sensor-driven approaches to further their coverage of political, environmental and health care landscapes.
“We are living in a sensed world,” wrote Fergus Pitt of the Tow Center.
In a not-so-distant future, data could be produced by sensors around the globe – including in traffic cameras, geological beacons and air-quality control systems – and be increasingly made available to journalists so they can explore new ways of reporting.
With the developments of distributing data via sensors, journalists must embrace the tools and techniques necessary to maximize the industry’s full analytical potential.
Seth Lind is the Director of Operations at This American Life. In this interview, he explains why quality content comes before any business model (see: Serial), the importance of audience building, and public radio’s current identity crisis.
Seth Lind, who’s worked at This American Life for almost ten years, has never seen the audio industry so in flux. From the emergence of podcasting networks to experiments in advertising, from public radio’s brain drain to the disruption in distribution, the audio industry is, in Lind’s words, experiencing a major “identity crisis.”
This American Life is no exception. The show has spent the last year reshaping its identity and asserting its independence from traditional methods of distribution. First in 2014 by delivering its shows through PRX’s online platform (rather than via its longtime distributor PRI), then by spinning off Serial (essentially becoming a network itself), and finally by breaking away from Chicago Public Media and establishing itself as a public benefit corporation owned and led by Ira Glass.
According to Lind, This American Life’s primary goal has always been to reach “the largest audience possible” — which, in the traditional public radio model, meant giving away the content to listeners for free via wide-reaching national networks (while charging radio stations carriage fees). However, the show has since become successful enough to shed its network ties, cultivate/tap into its own audience, and earn more from advertisers. In fact, the show recently made a switch you may have noticed in your Podcast App — for the first time ever, TAL episodes are now available not one, but four at a time. As the revenue from paid downloads plummets, Lind explained, it has become more valuable for TAL to get more listener impressions, which it can then sell to advertisers.
In future Lind sees downloads disappearing entirely as the industry moves in the direction the music industry has: with audio becoming “something you access, not acquire.” The Podcast App has already made technological strides towards that end; Lind is confident the technology will only improve over time. One technological development that would greatly increase podcast listenership, of course, is a podcast app baked into android devices: “There should be a petition. Dear Google, let people listen to podcasts on your phones.”
Of course, as Lind points out, none of the technological barriers to audience growth matter if one fundamental is not taken care of: quality. “Sometimes I get annoyed with Ira because he’s busy and won’t meet with me, but then — he’s working on the show. There’s nothing to put ads around or fundraise around if this stuff isn’t good.”
It’s a lesson that was hammered home for Lind when they released Serial. Although they considered potential spin-offs year after year, they ended up waiting nineteen years for something worthy enough to engage a large audience and sustain its own business model. Serial, one of the most successful podcasts in history, was worth the wait. “Make something people want,” Lind advises, “and the business model is going to follow.”
Not surprisingly, then, Lind believes there’s only one potential barrier to podcasting’s growth. “The barrier is creativity — who has the next idea for something truly new. I personally think that that’s gonna be fiction, I think someone’s gonna make The Breaking Bad of audio, and you’re gonna realize: this is as good as TV, but I’m listening in my commute. And it’s free!”]]>